Vasectomy Reversal

Watch Dr. Boyle talk about vasectomy reversal.

Dr. Boyle focuses her practice on performing vasectomy reversals for patients throughout the United States. She is a kind and compassionate physician, with an excellent bedside manner and approach to this sensitive and delicate procedure.

Vasectomy reversal patients from New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas and Mississippi as well as Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. visit Dr. Boyle. Dr. Boyle also performs vasectomy reversals on patients from outside the United States.

Dr. Boyle:

  • Has performed close to 1,000 vasectomy reversals and hundreds of babies have been born because of her work
  • Has an overall success rate approximately 90% when performing vasectomy reversals
  • Is a respected expert in microsurgical vasectomy reversal
  • Is a Harvard and Johns Hopkins educated and trained microsurgeon
  • Chesapeake Urology participates with most major insurance companies

Microsurgical Vasectomy Reversal – Vasovasostomy, Epididymovasostomy

A vasectomy reversal is a microsurgical operation that reestablishes a connection of the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm into the ejaculate that was previously cut during a vasectomy. At the time of vasectomy reversal, two procedures are possible:

  1. A vasovasostomy may be performed, which is when the two ends of the vas deferens are reconnected.
  2. Sometimes an epididymovasostomy is performed, which is when the vas deferens is reconnected to the epididymis because of a secondary obstruction in the epididymis (see below). Dr. Boyle performs both procedures entirely under the operating microscope.

Sperm Production and Vasectomy Reversals

Sperm production occurs in the testis. After passage through the efferent ducts, sperm are stored and undergo maturation in the epididymis. The epididymis is a continuous, tightly coiled tube approximately 15-18 feet in length, which leads into the vas deferens. Sperm that have not passed through the epididymis are generally not able to fertilize eggs under normal conditions. The vas deferens is responsible for directed and propelling sperm into the urethra.

The decision of whether to perform a vasovasostomy or an epididymovasostomy depends upon the quality of the fluid from the testicular side of the vas deferens. The fluid is expressed and examined under a microscope at the time of surgery.

If sperm are present in this fluid, then a reconnection between the two vas ends can be performed – vasovasostomy. When sperm are present in this fluid, we expect close to 95% or more patients to demonstrate a normal return of sperm to their ejaculate postoperatively. If no sperm are present, but the vasectomy fluid looks abundant and appropriate for ultimate sperm production (clear, watery), then a vasovasostomy is performed with a successful outcome of approximately 80%. If poor-quality fluid is present (e.g., thick, pasty) and sperm are absent, or no fluid at all is found, then an epididymovasostomy (connection of the vas to the epididymis) is performed with a successful outcome of approximately 60%.

Increasing numbers of men are coming to the urologist for vasectomy reversals, most commonly because of remarriage and the desire to initiate a pregnancy. Vasectomy reversals are also requested by couples who have merely “changed their minds,” as well as by couples who have lost a child and are attempting to initiate another pregnancy.

Microsurgical advances result in significant pregnancy rates, and it is essential that the surgeon be skillful with microsurgical technique, as precise suture placement is critical to the success of the procedure. The surgeon must also have the ability to perform the more difficult epididymovasostomy procedure.

The success of a vasectomy reversal depends on:

  1. The skill of the surgeon
  2. The findings at the time of surgery


While there are many methods for performing a vasovasostomy, we prefer a strict, two-layer, watertight procedure utilizing microscopic sutures and the latest microsurgical equipment. Selection of a single-layer, full thickness closure versus a strict two-layer (mucosal and seromuscular) closure is best dictated by the experience of the surgeon, which, indeed, is the most important factor in achieving the desired outcome.


Epididymovasostomy is a much more complicated procedure requiring a great deal more expertise at microsurgery. A single epididymal tubule is incised just before the obstruction and gently squeezed for fluid. The fluid is checked for sperm and, if none are present, a more proximal transection is made. Unlike vasovasostomy, epididymovasostomy is never successful if sperm are not present within the tubule at the site of the anastomosis. The anastomosis is then performed with two layers of extremely fine suture under the operating microscope. Again, microsurgery is mandatory for an epididymovasostomy because of the small size of the epididymal tubule.

Microsurgical Facility

Dr. Boyle performs her microsurgical vasectomy reversals at

Summit Ambulatory Surgery Center
Woodholme Medical Center 
1838 Greene Tree Rd., Suite 460
Pikesville, MD  21208

This facility boasts state of the art microsurgical equipment and board certified anesthesiologists and staff to assist in these procedures. This arrangement allows you to return home or to a nearby hotel without actually being admitting directly to the hospital, thus saving considerable expense and making the overall experience much more pleasant.

What should I expect during and after the vas reversal?

Operating time for a vasovasostomy or epdidymovasostomy is approximately 3-4 hours. A general anesthetic is usually used. We prefer that out-of-town patients stay in the Baltimore area for at least 1-2 days after surgery. Postoperative follow-up may include an evaluation of the healing wound at 6-12 weeks and a semen analysis at 6-8 weeks. Patients are given requisitions to obtain their postoperative semen analysis at the 6-8 week mark at the time of scheduling the procedure. Regular semen analyses may be recommended until the sperm count stabilizes or pregnancy achieved. It can take up to 6 months for sperm to return to the ejaculate following a vasovasostomy and up to 1 year following an epididymovasostomy. If semen quality is less than expected, anti-inflammatory medications like prednisone are often introduced to decrease scarring.

What about sperm banking?

Cryopreservation of sperm (sperm banking) may be performed at the time of vasectomy reversal upon patient request. Sperm can be retrieved if whole, motile sperm are present in the vasal fluid at the time of the reversal, or a testicular biopsy can be performed. Patients can request this additional procedure be performed at the time of the reversal, and they would coordinate with a fertility center of their choice. Patients would arrange to bring culture media to the surgery center and personally arrange transport of sperm to their fertility center for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation is performed as a safety “backup” in case inadequate sperm counts are present after surgery. Because vasectomy reversals may scar despite good initial results, cryopreservation may also be performed on ejaculated specimens early in the course of recovery when semen quality is exceptionally good. Dr. Boyle will work with patients to develop a plan based upon their specific requests and needs.

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